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Section III:
Technology

3.1 Desiccated Milk-based Products
3.2 Heat-acid Coagulated Products
3.3 Cultured/Fermented Products
3.4 Fat-rich Products
3.5 Milk-based Puddings/Desserts

Over the millennia, traditional milk products of India have enriched the cuisine of this vast subcontinent. These products constitute a large array of sweet, tempting, indulging confections. They have added colour, taste and flavour to life and have become synonymous with feasts, festivals and celebrations. More and more of these milk delicacies have become commercially significant for the organized sector. A large number of them continue to be made on a cottage scale in the traditional way. Many milk-based delicacies are also prepared at home. In this section, the technological aspects of a wide range of Indian milk products are presented under five broad categories, listed above.

Although information available on these products is inadequate, an effort has been made to focus on their technologies, including their preparation, physicochemical attributes, shelf life behaviour, packaging and the like. Wherever possible, the scope for process modernization has also been dealt with. Avenues for the induction of technology have been indicated for the large-scale production of those traditional milk products that lend themselves to such an approach. Due weightage has been given to their quality and safety, while preserving their freshness, taste and nutrition.

The making of traditional milk products has essentially been a cottage scale enterprise. Within the basic process for their production, variations exist from one unit to another that give products their distinctive touch, taste and flavour. Now, technologies for industrial manufacture of these products are being standardized to meet different situations and conditions. Process details for various milk products are given in this section that focus on practices that are largely followed or are under development.



3.1 Desiccated Milk-based Products
  • Introduction
  • Khoa/Mawa, Gulabjamun, Kalajamun, Pantua, Lalmohan, Burfi, Kalakand, Milk Cake, Peda, Dharwad Peda, Thirattupal, Rabri, Khurchan, Basundi, Kulfi & Frozen Desserts, Malai-Ka-Baraf, Falooda.
  • Regional Products — Kunda, Bal Mithai.


3.2 Heat-acid Coagulated Products

  • Introduction — aneer; Chhana; Rasogolla, Rasmalai, Rajbhog, Khirmohan; Sandesh; Chhana-Murki; Cham-cham; Chhana Podo; Surti Paneer; Bandel Cheese/Paneer.
  • Regional Products — Ksheer Sagar; Sita Bhog; Chhana Gaja; Chhana Jhele; Chhana Kheer; Chhana Pakora; Rasaballi; Shosim; Kalari.


3.3 Cultured/Fermented Products

  • Introduction
  • Dahi & Yogurt; Mishti Doi; Shrikhand; Chakka Powder; Shrikhand Wadi; Lassi; Mattha/Chhach/Chhas; Kadhi; Raita; Dahi Vada.


3.4 Fat-rich Products

  • Introduction
  • Ghee — Ghee Residue; Ghee-Residue Chocolate/Burfi Confection
  • Makkhan
  • Malai


3.5 Milk-based Puddings/Desserts

  • Introduction
  • Kheer; Payasam; Phirni, Sevian, Sabodana Kheer, Lauki Kheer; Sohan Halwa; Gajar-ka-halwa; Kaju Burfi.
  • Regional Products — Ghevar; Lauki Halwa; Padusha; Jilli; Mohandas.


Selected References

3.1 Desiccated Milk-based Products

  • Dodeja, A.K., Abichandani, H., Sarma, S.C. and Pal, D. (1992) Continuous khoa making system: Design, operation and performance. Indian J. Dairy Sci., 45(9): 671-674.
  • National Dairy Development Board (NDDB), Anand Annual Reports, 1999-2000, p. 12; 2000-01, p. 13.
  • Pal, D. (1997) Technology of khoa-based sweets in Advances in traditional dairy products, CAS in Dairy Technology. NDRI Deemed University, Karnal. pp. 31-36.
  • Patel, A.A. and De, S. (1977) Production and storage of dried khoa. Indian Dairyman, 31(2): 79-83.
  • Deshmukh, Smita, Sammanwar, R.D. and Sorte, G.D. (1993) Effect of homogenization of milk on the quality of gulabjamun. J. Fd. SCI Technol., 30(3): 211-212.
  • Reddy, C.R. (1985) Process modification for production of khoa-based sweets. Ph.D. Thesis. Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra.
  • Suresh, I. and Jha, Y.K. (1994) Sensory, biochemical and microbiological qualities of kalakand. J. FD SCI Technol., 31(4): 330-332.
  • Karwasra, R.K., Srivastava, D.N. And Hooda, S. (2001) Standardization of the process for manufacture of milk cake. Indian J. Dairy SCI, 54(5): 280-282.
  • Kumar, R., Bandopadhyay, P. and Punjrath, J.S. (1997) Shelf life extension of peda, using different packaging techniques. Indian J. Dairy SCI, 50(1): 40-49.
  • Thompkinson, D.K. And De, S. (1981) Utilization of dried khoa for peda making. J. FD SCI Technol., 18: 259-60.
  • Gayen, D. and Pal, D. (1991) Studies on the manufacture and storage of rabri. Indian J. Dairy SCI, 44(1): 84-88.
  • Pal, D. (1997) Technology of the manufacture of rabri and basundi in Advances in traditional dairy products. CAS in Dairy Technology, NDRI Deemed University, Karnal.
  • Rajor, R.B. And Vani, B. (1990) A new approach for the manufacture of kulfi. Indian Dairyman, 43(6): 256-261.


3.2 Heat-acid Coagulated Products

  • Kanawjia, S.K. and Singh, S. (2000). Technological advances in paneer making. Indian Dairyman, 52(10): 45-50.
  • Sachdeva, S., Patel, R.S., Kanawjia, SK, Singh, S. and Gupta V.K. (1993) Paneer manufacture employing ultrafiltration. Proc. 3rd International Food Congress, IFCON-93, Mysore. Pp. 53-57.
  • Sachdeva, S. (1997) Innovations in the manufacture and preservation of paneer in Advances in traditional dairy products, CAS in Dairy Technology. NDRI Deemed University, Karnal. Pp. 48-53.
  • Verma, B.B. (1997) Developments in chhana making in Advances in traditional dairy products. CAS in Dairy Technology. NDRI Deemed University, Karnal. Pp. 37-41.
  • Verma, B.B. (1997) Technology of chhana-based sweets in Advances in traditional dairy products. CAS in Dairy Technology. NDRI Deemed University, Karnal. Pp. 65-70.
  • Tarafdar, H.N., Das, H. and Prasad, S. (1998) Mechanical kneading of chhana and quality of rasogolla. J. FD SCI and Technol., 25(4): 223-227.


3.3 Cultured/Fermented Products

  • Anon. (1990) Technology of traditional milk products in developing countries: Dahi. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper 85, FAO/WHO, Rome, Italy. Pp. 250-252.
  • Goel, B.K. (1998) Studies on feasibility of commercial production of mishti doi — A techno-economic aspect. Indian Dairyman, 50(3): 11-15.
  • Aneja, R.P., Vyas, M.N., Nanda, K. and Thareja, V.K. (1977) Chakka and shrikhand. Indian Patent No. 142362.
  • Aneja, R.P., Vyas, M.N., Nanda, I.L. And Thareja, V.K. (1977) Development of an industrial process for the manufacture of shrikhand. J. FD SCI Technol., 14, 159-163.
  • Aneja, R.P. And Vyas, M.N. (1987) Improvements in or relating to a method of maintaining the keeping quality of shrikhand. Indian Patent No. 157050.
  • De, A.K. And Patel, RS (1989) Technological aspects of manufacturing chakka powder. Jap. J. Dairy FD SCI, 38:169-173.
  • Patel, RS and Chakraborty, B.K. (1988) Shrikhand: A review. Indian. J. Dairy SCI 41: 1-6.
  • Ghosh, B.C. and Kulkarni, S. (1990) Dehydrated kadhi: A convenience food. Indian Dairyman, 42(1): 11-14.


3.4 Fat-rich Products

  • Bindal, M.P. and Jain, M.K. (1973) Studies on the cholesterol content of cow and buffalo ghee. Indian J. Ani. SCI, 43(10): 918-24.
  • Rangappa, K.S. and Achaya, K.T. (1973) Indian dairy products. Asia Publishing House, Bombay, pp. 149-363.
  • Wadhwa, B.K. And Jain, M.K. (1990) Chemistry of ghee flavour-A review. Indian J. Dairy SCI, 43: 601-604.
  • Galhotra, K.K. And Wadhwa, B.K. (1993) Chemistry of ghee-residue, its significance and utilization: A review. Indian J. Dairy SCI, 46: 142-148.
  • Rao, H.G.R. And Gopinath, S. (2001) Importance of ghee residue and its utilization. Indian Dairyman, 53(2): 5-19.
  • Anon. (1990) Technology of traditional milk products in developing countries: Makkhan. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper 85, FAO/WHO, Rome, Italy. pp. 56-57.

3.5 Milk-based Puddings/Desserts

  • Deshpande, S.S. and Bhattacharya, K.R. (1982): Texture of cooked rice. J. Texture Studies, 13(1): 31-42.
  • Mani, G.S., Lily, G., Balasubramanium, S.C. and Basu, K.P. (1955) Composition and nutritional value of some indigenous dairy products. Indian J. Med. Res., 43(5): 237-242.
  • Rapaille, A. and Vanhemelrijck, J. (1998) Milk-Based Desserts in The technology of dairy products. Ed. R. Early. Blackie Academic & Professional, London, UK. pp. 327-352.
  • Kulkarni, S. (1999) A compendium on payasam. Southern Regional Station, National Dairy Research Institute, Bangalore.
  • Mathur, O.N., Bhattacharya, D.C. and Roy, N.K. (1985) Phirni: An Indian sweet dish. Indian Dairyman, 37(12): 575-578.
  • Pataki, P.E. and Arya, S.S. (1996) Studies on development and storage stability of instant halwa mix. Beverage and Food World, 22(5) 25-26.


Selected Boxes

3.1 Desiccated Milk-based Products

  • Sensory Profile of Traditional Dairy Products
  • Kulfi: A 500 Year Old Frozen Delight

3.2 Heat-acid Coagulated Products

  • Dahi is Not Yogurt

3.4 Fat-rich Products

  • Ghee is Not Clarified Butter Fat

3.5 Milk-based Puddings/Desserts

  • Industrial Production of Kheer & Other Milk Based Desserts


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 Transfer of  Technology
"The handbook will help the transfer of technology to Indian entrepreneurs, keen to apply these to meet the growing demands for our dairy products, both nationally and globally".
- Dr (Miss) Amrita Patel, Chairman, National Dairy Development Board
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